UOB Bank is short for United Overseas Bank Limited. This multinational bank is among the oldest financial establishments in the country. Headquartered in Singapore, it was founded by Wee Kheng Chiang, a Sarawakian businessman back in 1935, and is now among the most prominent banking groups in Southeast Asia.
Growing in the money market
UOB was started by Wee, together with 6 other partners. It was then known as UCB or United Chinese Bank which was then focused on the Chinese community in the country. It was in 1965 that the bank was renamed UOB and also the Hong Kong operations started. That would be the first UOB overseas branch. 5 years later, it went public at the Joint Stock Exchange of Singapore and Malaysia. It would then continue to grow after taking over Chung Khiaw Bank. This was followed by Lee Wah Bank, Far Eastern Bank, Westmonk Bank (the Philippines), Radanasin Bank (Thailand) before the multi-billion merger with Overseas Union Bank (UOB) Singapore.
Bank with a stable reputation
UOB operates more than 500 offices across the world with a majority of them in the Asia region. Besides that, it has branches in Western Europe and North America as well. Services offered are mostly in commercial and corporate banking services and into investments as well. In Singapore, UOB operates 68 branches. Among the highlights of UOB:
- Holds the SGS Primary Dealer license.
- Nearly USD278 billion total assets in 2018.
- Aa1 long-term credit rating from Moody’s
- TMRW is UOB’s first mobile-only bank which was launched in Thailand.
OCBC Bank or Overseas Chinese Banking Corporation in Singapore is the second-largest financial services group in Southeast Asia. This financial services group is based in Singapore, where it was established in 1932. This occurred during the time of the Great Depression which saw the merge of 3 banks that time, namely the Chinese Commercial Bank Limited, Ho Hong Bank Limited, and Oversea-Chinese Bank Limited. The 3 banks were incorporated in 1912, 1917, and 1919 respectively.
Among the most achieved banks
With assets totaling to over S$490 billion, OCBC holds an Aa1 rating from Moody’s as well as Standard & Poor’s AA rating. This puts OCBC among the highest in terms of ratings. Besides that, OCBC has a string of very reputable accolades including:
- Singapore’s Strongest Bank for 2018-2019– The Asian Banker
- Top 5 Safest Bank in the World and World’s Best Bank (Asia-Pacific) 2019 – Global Finance Magazine
Banking operations by OCBC
Besides the awards and recognition by OCBC, the bank operates more than 570 branches across the world. Its operations are spread around in 18 regions with which more than 100 branches are in Hong Kong, Macao, and China. Among its subsidiaries include:
- Singapore Island Bank
- OCBC Securities
- Lion Global Investors (LGI)
- Great Eastern Holdings
- Bank of Singapore
- OCBC Wing Hang Bank
- OCBC Al-Amin Bank Berhad
- Bank OCBC NISP
- OCBC Bank (China)
- Select Securities Limited (Hong Kong)
One of the largest international banking groups in the world Citibank has been operating in Singapore for more than a hundred years. Its presence in Singapore dates back to 1902 when it was the first bank from the United States to set up a branch here. Then, it was called IBC or International Banking Corporation when it was mainly involved in trade financing, particularly in tin and rubber exports.
Expanding into other markets
Citibank was the first bank in Singapore that rolled out the use of ATMs (Automated Teller Machine) during the 80s and in the early 90s, became the first firm to offer telephone banking service in Singapore as well. Among all the other banks, Citibank’s venture into the retail-banking segment was slightly later but has since become one of the leading establishments in this market. Its services include deposits and investments, secured assets and unsecured lending, among others. In 1999, the Monetary Authority of Singapore (MAS) awarded Citibank the Qualifying Full Bank (QFB) license, thereby expanding its services to an even larger market group.
Recognition for banking services
A division of USA’s Citibank N.A, Citibank Singapore Limited was incorporated in 2004 and holds an SGS Primary Dealer license. It was the first QFB-licensed bank to provide the Visa Global Debit Service (in 2002). Citibank is also the first to provide a debit card cashback scheme with Visa. Citibank allows low-cost bank-to-bank fund transfer from Citibank Singapore to other Citibank branches in other countries.
With a history dating back to more than 140 years, HSBC Singapore is the oldest bank in the country. HSBC was formerly known as The Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation Limited started in Singapore in 1877 when it was the largest trading hub in the region. It was among the first members of the local chamber of commerce in Singapore then.
The HSBC Banknotes
Collectors of old currency notes might notice there are some that were imprinted with the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation names on them. This was between 1881 and 1090 when HSBC Singapore was awarded the right to issue banknotes as a secure currency for trading and other commercial activities. These banknotes were issued with multilingual features as they were used by people from different communities then.
Services and products offered
Offering a full range of banking and financial services, HSBS Singapore provides a broad range of consumer and corporate packages. This includes investment banking, trustee services, retail banking, and wealth management as well as in the securities and capital markets. HSBC Singapore is one of the most prominent banks in the country that provides loans, credit cards, and other personal banking products.
Recognized for customer service
Today, HSBC Singapore provides its services through its 9 branches in Singapore. The branches are equipped with ATM machines while there are more than 10 self-service terminals for its customers. It was the first bank in Singapore to remove sales commission for its customers in Premier Banking.
Maybank Singapore is a subsidiary of Maybank Malaysia. The banking group has been awarded the Most Valuable Bank in Malaysia by Brand Finance and the fifth-best in ASEAN. In Malaysia, Maybank is the largest in terms of market capitalization and total assets. Total assets owned by Maybank is more than USD165 billion in 2015. It operates a large network in 10 countries in ASEAN.
Growing strategically in the money markets
The origins of Maybank dates back to 1960 when it was founded by Khoo Teck Puat, a Singaporean business tycoon and Oei Tjong Le of Chinese-Indonesian descent. Today, the Maybank Group has grown to offer its services around Southeast Asia, the Middle East, the United Kingdom, the USA, and other regions.
Where it all started
Maybank’s operations in Singapore started in 1960 where it was then founded. Today, it has grown to offer a full range of financial services for its corporate and private banking customers. In Singapore, Maybank operates 21 branches with over 21 ATMs offering self-banking services. It holds a Qualifying Full Bank (QFB) license by the Monetary Authority of Singapore (MAS). This means Maybank provides a comprehensive range of retail banking products like loans, credit cards, and investments. Personal loans that are offered by Maybank Singapore include:
- Maybank Debt Consolidation Plan – To manage personal debts under one account.
- Creditable (Personal Line of Credit)
- Education Loans – For paying tuition fees for local and overseas education.
- Renovation Loans
Standard Chartered Bank Singapore holds an SGS Primary Dealer license. It is one of the oldest and most established banks in the island. Standard Chartered Singapore is part of the multination banking group from the United Kingdom, Standard Chartered PLC, which is based in London. The global banking brand today operates over 1,200 branches across the world where it has a strong presence in over 70 countries offering a full range of services in consumer, corporate, and institutional banking, among others. It has 16 branches and 27 ATMs operating in Singapore, among others.
An international and recognized name in financial services
As a banking group, Standard Chartered is extremely popular. It is listed in most major markets including London and Hong Kong. The largest shareholder of the international group is Temasek Holdings, which is a Singaporean based company. In Singapore, the first branch was opened more than 160 years ago (1859) but it was only in 1999 that Standard Chartered was awarded the Qualifying Full Bank (QFB) license by the country’s Monetary Authority of Singapore (MAS).
Loans and financial services
Standard Chartered Singapore offers a comprehensive range of products and services for its commercial and corporate customers across the country. It provides retail banking services such as credit cards, personal loans, investments, and savings. It has been ranked A1/Stable by Moody’s Investor Services, A/Sable by Fitch Ratings as well as A/Stable by Standard & Poor’s, which proves that Standard Chartered Singapore is among the highest-rated banks in the world today.
ANZ which is Australia and New Zealand Banking Group Limited is the second largest bank in Australia in terms of assets and third largest in terms of market capitalization. The Australian multinational banking group is based in Melbourne, Australia which began operations in 1950 from the merger between the Union Bank of Australia Limited and the Bank of Australasia. Today, ANZ is one of the biggest banks in Australia, together with 3 others.
Presence in the Asia Pacific region
The primary operations of ANZ come from its commercial and retail banking segment in Australia while it is the largest bank in New Zealand as well. In Singapore meanwhile, ANZ ventured into this market in 1974 where it provides services through trade and capital flows between the 2 countries. It operates 2 of its regional business hubs in Asia for ANZ. Since then, it has grown to offer a comprehensive range of services for its corporate and institutional customers. ANZ Singapore first started off as a representative office for the group and then converted to become an offshore banking office in 1980.
A Community-based entity
As a financial services firm, ANZ Singapore offers various services and contributions. Among the prominent ones include its MoneyMinded financial education program for adults which was a collaborative effort with Singapore’s Institute of Technical Education. It also offers other initiatives through its Diversity & Inclusion, Emergency & Disaster Relief, and Financial Inclusion & Capability arms.
SBI or State Bank of India is one of the oldest and largest commercial banks in India. Dating back to more than 200 years, SIB is a Fortune 500 company in which the Government of India is its single largest shareholder. First established as the Bank of Calcutta in 1806, it would then merge with the Bank of Madras and Bank of Bombay in 1921 to become the Imperial Bank of India. In 1955, the Reserve Bank of India bought a controlling stake in this bank, and SBI was established.
Moving into other markets
Today, SBI operates more than 22,000 branches in India alone and 200 other offices around the world. SBI’s venture into Singapore started in 1977 when it began its offshore banking services. Since then, it has moved and expanded into offering other areas including wholesale and commercial banking services. In 2008, the MAS (Monetary Authority of Singapore) awarded SBI Singapore the QFB (Qualifying Full Bank) license which means it could start offering a wider range of financial services to its customers.
Today, SBI Singapore operates 25 ATMs across the country with 5 branches offering retail banking services. It provides a full range of products that include loans, insurance, investments, deposits, and remittance in the retail banking segment and a comprehensive range in the corporate banking segment. This includes:
- Home Loans
- Bridging Loan
- Commercial Property Loans
- Secured Overdraft
- Student Loans
- Personal Loans
- Premium Financing
Bangkok Bank is among the largest banks that originated from Thailand. Operated under the Bangkok Bank Public Company Limited banner, it was founded in 1944 and is among the most reputable banks in the region. Bangkok Bank now operates more than 1,150 branches with more than 9,000 ATMs. Globally, Bangkok Bank operates in 15 economies with over 30 branches worldwide. In China and Malaysia, Bangkok Bank runs as wholly-owned subsidiaries while it has a presence in New York and London as well.
Strong history in Singapore
Bangkok Bank Singapore started its Singapore operations in 1957 with a small team of 14 people. It was not long after that the bank expanded to more than 100 staff before the operations have to expand again. Singapore is an important market for Bangkok Bank as an international financial center. After moving into their own premises, Bangkok Bank continues to provide financial services for its corporate and retail customers where it has since been awarded the full commercial bank license by the Monetary Authority of Singapore (MAS).
Today, Bangkok Bank Singapore provides a full range of banking facilities for its customers in both the corporate and consumer segments. Among them include:
- Savings and investment services covering accounts, mutual funds, and investments.
- Credit and debit cards as well as the related services.
- Personal loans, home loans and business loans.
- Digital banking facilities and ATM services.
- Remittances, transfers, currency exchange and payments.
CIMB Singapore is part of the larger CIMB Group from Malaysia. The CIMB Group Holdings Berhad is one of the largest banks in Malaysia with its headquarters in Malaysia which is short for Commercial International Merchant Bankers. Known as an indigenous ASEAN investment bank, it has a very strong presence across the region. Today, CIMB operates more than 1,000 branches around the ASEAN region which come under several arms like CIMB Bank, CIMB Investment Bank, CIMB Niaga, and CIMB Thai, among others.
Full service banking services
CIMB came about through the merger of several banks around the region. They include Bian Chiang Bank, Bank of Commerce Bhd, Ban Hin Lee Bank, Bank Lippo, Bank Niaga, Southern Bank Berhad, Bumiputera Commerce Bank Bhd, United Asian Bank Bhd, and Pertanian Baring Sanwa Multinational Berhad. In the Malaysian market, CIMB operates more than 230 branches with ATM facilities.
As a financial and banking group, CIMB offers a comprehensive range of facilities that come under areas like Wholesale Banking, Treasury & Markets, Corporate Banking, Consumer Banking, Investment Banking, and others. These facilities are supported by its large and functional team of more than 40,000 workforces operating in 18 countries.
Banking services by CIMB Singapore
In Singapore, CIMB Bank holds a full bank license where it provides commercial and corporate banking services. It was in 2009 that CIMB started offering universal banking services in Singapore where it now operates 3 branches across the island offering products such as personal loans and debt consolidation loans.
ICICI Bank or Investments Credit and Corporation of India Bank is the largest private sector bank in India. It operates more than 4,800 branches with nearly 14,000 ATMs. ICICI Bank provides a wide range of banking and financial services for its corporate and retail banking customers where it operates in 17 different countries around the world including China, Hong Kong, Malaysia, the United Arab Emirates, the United States, and Singapore. The main areas that ICICI Bank provides services through include retail banking, insurance, venture capital, investments, assets management, and many others.
Singapore market for ICICI Bank
The ICICI Bank Singapore represents the first overseas branch for the group. This would be a major move for the bank as they venture into a highly vibrant and competitive market. ICICI Bank Singapore was granted the banking license in 2003 and in 2010 granted the Qualifying Full Bank (QFB) license by the Monetary Authority of Singapore. This allowed ICICI Bank Singapore to offer a comprehensive range of banking facilities provided under these privileges.
This means that ICICI Bank can start providing financial services for the different market segments in Singapore. As such, ICICI Bank Singapore now offers products to its Singaporean customers that cover:
- Savings accounts and Fixed-Deposits
- Remittances and transfer to India with competitive exchange rates
- Deposit and banking products in different currencies
- Financial solutions for companies in India as well the surrounding region
- Home loans in India for Non-Resident Indians in Singapore
RHB Bank Singapore is a subsidiary of the RHB Bank Berhad group from Malaysia. The group was incorporated in 1994 where it was then known as DCB Holdings Berhad. It was only in 1997 that it assumed the RHB (short for Rashid Hussein Bank) brand. Today, RHB Bank is the fourth largest banking group in Malaysia.
Integrating banking services
The RHB Banking Group is involved in various market segments offered under several names like RHB Bank Berhad, OSK Investment Bank Bhd, RHB Insurance Berhad, and RHB Investment Bank Bhd, among others. It was the first domestic financial group in Malaysia in 2005 to establish an Islamic banking arm. RHB is present in 7 ASEAN countries. The RHB name was actually a merger from Kwong Yik Bank Berhad and DCB Bank Berhad. Today, RHB manages nearly 200 branches that operate in Malaysia, Thailand, Brunei, Vietnam, and Singapore.
RHB’s venture into the Singapore market started in 1961 where it operates in its own building located on Cecil Street. There are 7 branches that provide a comprehensive range of financial services for its corporate and retail banking customers. Holding a full bank license, RHB Bank Singapore provides services including:
- Personal banking covering fixed deposits, savings
- Home and property loans, education loans and personal loans
- Insurance products
- Business banking services including trade, deposits, loans, and others
- Securities services covering retail equities, institutional equities, share margin financing, securities trading, online trading, and others.
The Bank of India Singapore is a fully licensed bank that offers a comprehensive range of banking facilities. It is part of the larger Bank of India group from India. The bank is one of the oldest establishments in the country having been formed by a group of businessmen back in 1906 in Mumbai (former name for Bombay). The bank has been operating with high customer service standards that have contributed much to its expansion since. Today, The Bank of India serves its customers through more than 5,000 branches across the country. On top of that, it has around 60 branches and offices, 5 subsidiaries and 1 Joint-Venture business overseas.
Bank of India in SEA markets
The Bank of India has a very strong representation in many economies across Southeast Asia including Japan, Hong Kong, China, Vietnam, and Singapore. In Singapore, the bank provides many types of services in the areas of forex dealing, remittance, trade finance, derivatives as well as in loan syndications. In fact, the Bank of India Singapore operates its own Forex Dealing Room. It employs around 60 people under its payroll that serve its customers through all types of financial products. The Bank of India is actually one of the early foreign banks that ventured into Singapore. It first established its operations in the island in 1951 and has been doing business here ever since. The Bank of India holds both the Domestic Banking Unit (DBU) and ACU (Asian Currency Unit) licenses respectively, allowing it to provide services in banking facilities in different currencies.
The Indian Overseas Bank (IOB) Singapore is part of the India-based Indian Overseas Bank. Indian Overseas Bank is one of the oldest banks in India which was established in 1937 by a prominent individual. Bank’s focus was on overseas banking and in the foreign exchange sectors. One of the remarkable milestones achieved by IOB is being the first to be certified under the ISO 9001 Certification for Computer Policy and Planning Department back in 1999.
Wide International Presence
The Indian Overseas Bank has been expanding aggressively over the years and has since moved overseas. Within India, the bank operates around 3,400 branches and thousands of ATMs to serve its customers. Meanwhile, it has 6 branches and representative offices abroad that include the Indian Overseas Bank in Singapore. It is one of the few foreign banks that entered the Singaporean market since the 1940s and has since grown to become a household name. Here, a wide range of financial services and products are offered in terms of banking accounts, loans, and such.
Venturing into Singapore
Today, the bank operates at a major economic hub of Singapore at the Central Business District. The Indian Overseas Bank’s building is located on Cecil Street where it has its own Dealing Room. Besides that, a fully automated branch provides efficient and quick services for its customers. Services that are offered by the Indian Overseas Bank in Singapore are catered both for locals and expatriates. This cover area like remittance services, credit facilities, trade financing, and retail banking.
JP Morgan is one of the most reputable names in the global money markets. It provides all types of banking and financial services to its customers at all levels. As a global firm, JP Morgan has a reputable record and is present in over 100 economies. As such, JP Morgan is involved in major segments of investment banking where it helps in providing strategic and financial advice, capital raising, and risk management, among others. JP Morgan is also involved in treasury services in which it provides assistance in cash management solutions and others.
Over a hundred years of top quality service
JP Morgan’s history in the Asia Pacific markets dates back to 1872. With more than a hundred years of experience and proven track record, JP Morgan has grown and expanded to 17 markets today. As such, it helps businesses in many sectors to grow economically and financially. Other areas that JP Morgan is involved in include securities services where it provides expert knowledge in fund management, asset management, equity issuers, and broker-dealers.
Central SEA hub for JP Morgan
JP Morgan Singapore is a full-service firm that provides several facilities in the area of private banking, asset management, corporate and investment banking, and commercial banking, to name a few. Its customers range from individuals to local corporations, multinational companies, and government agencies. Here on the island, JP Morgan’s branch is the main hub that functions for the firm’s Southeast Asian representation hence extending its services to the surrounding region and markets.
Hong Leong Finance is the banking arm for the larger Hong Leong Group Singapore. Hong Leong Group Singapore is a globally-diversified company with a strong presence across the world. With a gross asset amounting to more than S$40 billion, it is among the largest groups in the country. Today, Hong Leong Group has more than 40,000 people under its payroll who are involved in various market segments in the Asia-Pacific, North America, Europe, and the Middle East that include hotels, trade & industry, property development, and financial services.
Banking and finance
Hong Leong’s banking business in Singapore started out in 1961. Being a subsidiary of a stable and strong group, Hong Leong Finance has been operating with much success. Today, Hong Leong Finance operates 12 SME Centres and 28 branches around Singapore. Hong Leong Finance Limited, being the largest finance company in the company has been providing financial services for its customers in every aspect. This includes providing all types of services that include financial support for local businesses as well as for individual customers.
One of the major areas that Hong Leong Finance has been focused on has been on the SME market. Known to be the ‘SME Specialist’, Hong Leong Finance’s services are provided for SMEs through the government-administered Local Enterprise Finance Scheme. This helps to finance local businesses to start and grow their operations. Besides that, the SME Centre established by Hong Leong Finance is targeted to provide additional support for SMEs to grow and through any needed means.
The BNP Paribas Group is a Europe-based bank with a strong brand across the world. Its core area of business includes providing financial products and services for corporations, public and private investors. This covers several critical areas such as asset management, corporate & institutional banking, insurance, and consumer banking areas as well. BNP Paribas employs over 200,000 people in its global operations that spans across 72 markets.
Financial services for everyone
As a financial service company, BNP Paribas has been well recognized for offering some of the best in its market segment. This includes areas such as Global Equities & Commodity Derivatives, Fixed Income, Securities Services, and Structured Finance, among others. On top of that, BNP Paribas has been awarded some of the top accolades in the industry which include:
- Asian Private Banker, 7th Asset Management Awards for Excellence 2020
- Best Fund Provider – Greater China Equity
- Asia Asset Management, 2020 Best of the Best Awards
- Marine Money Deal of the Year Awards 2019
Long history in SEA
Singapore represents the Southeast Asia hub for BNP Paribas. Through this base, BNP Paribas is able to serve its customers through 5 major markets here that include Vietnam, Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, and Singapore. With more than 2,000 employees in these operations, BNP Paribas has been in Singapore since 1968. The areas the BNP Paribas serve here include high net worth individuals, large multinational companies, local and regional companies, and other financial institutions.
The Bank of Singapore is a local bank that is a subsidiary of OCBC Bank, one of the top banks in the region. OCBC Bank acquired the ING Asia Private Bank in 2009 and renamed it Bank of Singapore. Since then, the Bank of Singapore has been growing, offering a wide range of financial services for its corporate and commercial customers across the country. Its total assets at the end of 2019 were at USD$117 billion. The main markets that Bank of Singapore serve include high net worth customers and are very aggressive in economies such as India, China, and many parts of Asia.
Wide network of operations
The Bank of Singapore’s headquarters is in Singapore while it has branches in Dubai and Hong Kong as well. Rated Aa1 by Moody’s, it shows the stability and quality of the bank’s management. Through its BOS Wealth Management arm, the Bank of Singapore has representation in markets in Malaysia and Europe.
Major achievements economically
OCBC’s acquisitions of ING Asia Private Bank saw the establishment of the Bank of Singapore 2010. 6 years later, the Bank of Singapore took over the wealth and investment business of UK’s Barclays Singapore and Hong Kong which saw over 60 private bankers joining the Bank of Singapore. Besides offering financial services, the Bank of Singapore is also involved in education where it collaborates with the Wealth Management Institute and Nanyang Technological University to train private bankers through the Advanced Diploma in Private Banking Programme.
DBS Bank Singapore is one of the most reputable banks in the country as well as in the world. The multinational banking and financial services group’s headquarters is in the luxurious Marina Bay. DBS Bank got was formerly known as The Development Bank of Singapore Limited and was in 2003 when it was renamed to its current name. Established in 1968, the bank was originally intended to take over the responsibilities of the Economic Development Board then. It has since grown to become one of the top brands in the global banking sector.
Top notch financial management
As of 2018, the total assets by DBS Bank were at USD$404 billion, making it the largest bank in terms of assets in Southeast Asia. In Singapore alone, over 100 branches of DBS Bank operates to provide financial services and facilities to its customers. It is also among the larger banks in the Asia region. As such, it is no surprise that DBS Bank leads many market segments of the financial sector like asset management, treasury and markets, and consumer banking. Internationally, DBS Bank has more than 250 branches and over a thousand ATMs.
Taking over POS Bank
DBS Bank acquired the Post Office Savings Bank (now known as POS Bank), the oldest bank in Singapore in 1998. POSBank has the highest number of branches in Singapore and was one of the top banks having one million depositors back in 1976. With the acquisition, it further cemented DBS Bank’s position as the top bank in Singapore coupled with its long-term credit rating of Aa1 from Moody’s.
Mizuho Bank Singapore is part of the larger Mizuho Bank Ltd which is a subsidiary of the Mizuho Financial Group of Japan. As one of the largest financial service providers in the world, the Mizuho Financial Group of Japan is involved in many market sectors. The banking arm of the group is involved in the money markets, corporate banking, and integrated retail business. In 2017, the total assets of the Mizuho Financial Group totaled at USD$1.8 trillion. It is known as one of the 3 ‘megabanks’ in Japan together with SMBC and MUFG of that country. In Singapore, Mizuho Bank entered the market back in 1974 and has been servicing its customers from all market segments ever since.
Wide network and branches
As an international brand in banking, Mizuho Bank operates more than 500 branches worldwide. It is the only bank in japan to have branches in every prefecture there. Through the Singapore market, Mizuho Bank holds a full banking license and employs more than 700 people under its payroll. As such, it provides banking and financial services to its customers island-wide. The areas of business that Mizuho Bank is involved in include trade finance, fund transfers, and management, cash management, corporate finance, treasury, and others. Besides that, it further expands its services in investment banking solutions through its affiliate company, Mizuho Securities. The Singapore branch of Mizuho Bank is the main regional office that provides support and operations for its Asia and Oceania markets besides East Asia.